Author Topic: Causes & Risk factors of Acute Myocardial Infarction  (Read 253 times)

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Causes & Risk factors of Acute Myocardial Infarction
« on: August 05, 2019, 11:32:10 AM »
Acute myocardial infarction is the medical name for a heart attack. A heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage. This is usually the result of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. A blockage can develop due to a buildup of plaque, a substance mostly made of fat, cholesterol, and cellular waste products.

What causes acute myocardial infarction?
Heart is the main organ in cardiovascular system, which also includes different types of blood vessels. Some of the most important vessels are the arteries. They take oxygen-rich blood to body and all of other organs. The coronary arteries take oxygen rich blood specifically to heart muscle. When these arteries become blocked or narrowed due to a buildup of plaque, the blood flow to heart can decrease significantly or stop completely. This can cause a heart attack. Several factors may lead to a blockage in the coronary arteries.
Bad cholesterol
Bad cholesterol, also called low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is one of the leading causes of a blockage in the arteries. Cholesterol is a colorless substance that’s found in the food we eat. Our body also makes it naturally. Not all cholesterol is bad, but LDL cholesterol can stick to the walls of arteries and produce plaque. Plaque is a hard substance that blocks blood flow in the arteries. Blood platelets, which help the blood to clot, may stick to the plaque and build up over time.
Saturated fats
Saturated fats may also contribute to the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries. Saturated fats are found mostly in meat and dairy products, including beef, butter, and cheese. These fats may lead to an arterial blockage by increasing the amount of bad cholesterol in blood system and reducing the amount of good cholesterol.
Trans fat
Another type of fat that contributes to clogged arteries is trans fat, or hydrogenated fat. Trans fat is usually artificially produced and can be found in a variety of processed foods. Trans fat is typically listed on food labels as hydrogenated oil or partially hydrogenated oil.

Who is at risk for acute myocardial infarction?
Certain factors may increase your risk of having a heart attack.
High blood pressure
You’re at greater risk for heart attack if you have high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) depending on your age. As the numbers increase, so does your risk of developing heart problems. Having high blood pressure damages your arteries and accelerates the buildup of plaque.
High cholesterol levels
Having high levels of cholesterol in your blood puts you at risk for acute myocardial infarction. You may be able to lower your cholesterol by making changes to your diet or by taking certain medications called statins.
High triglyceride levels
High triglyceride levels also increase your risk for having a heart attack. Triglycerides are a type of fat that clog up your arteries. Triglycerides from the food you eat travel through your blood until they’re stored in your body, typically in your fat cells. However, some triglycerides may remain in your arteries and contribute to the buildup of plaque.
Diabetes and high blood sugar levels
Diabetes is a condition that causes blood sugar, or glucose, levels to rise. High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and eventually lead to coronary artery disease. This is a serious health condition that can trigger heart attacks in some people.
Obesity
Your chances of having a heart attack are higher if you’re very overweight. Obesity is associated with various conditions that increase the risk of heart attack, including:
•   diabetes
•   high blood pressure
•   high cholesterol levels
•   high triglyceride levels
Smoking
Smoking tobacco products increases your risk for heart attack. It may also lead to other cardiovascular conditions and diseases.
Age
The risk of having a heart attack increases with age. Men are at a higher risk of a heart attack after age 45, and women are at a higher risk of a heart attack after age 55.
Family history
You’re more likely to have a heart attack if you have a family history of early heart disease. Your risk is especially high if you have male family members who developed heart disease before age 55 or if you have female family members who developed heart disease before age 65.
Other factors that can increase your risk for heart attack include:
•   stress
•   lack of exercise
•   the use of certain illegal drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines
•   a history of preeclampsia, or high blood pressure during pregnancy

Source: healthline